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什么是电子战?

5分钟 读 + Video

You may have heard that electronic warfare becoming increasingly important. Applications and products are constantly developing. 但是电子战是什么意思呢? 我们来看看基本的.

“简而言之, it is about detecting or disturbing electromagnetic emissions, typically a radar emission or a communication signal. 例如, 它可以用来保护飞机, 直升机, or ship from radar- or infrared-guided missiles”, 汉普斯·德林说是星际网赌导航电子战系统业务部门战略和投资组合负责人. “It can be used for protection when you go into harm’s way, or to take offensive measures during a military or grey zone conflict, or to get situational 意识 in peacetime.”

利林- hampus - 75 s0412练得——李.jpg
Hampus Delin是星际网赌导航电子战系统业务部门战略和投资组合负责人.

星际网赌导航不仅为飞机提供电子战解决方案,也为舰船和陆基系统,如地面防空(GBAD)解决方案提供电子战解决方案. This article explores the background to Saab’s and 瑞典’s achievements within this field.

Electronic warfare has evolved significantly over the years, and large investments have been made in technology. Saab’s experience within electronic warfare goes back more than 50 years. 保护军用飞机免受空对空导弹或地面防空系统攻击的需要是主要推动力. 早期安装包括在攻击和侦察飞机Saab 32 Lansen上的系统, which was equipped with chaff dispensers used against the opponents’ radar. Saab 37 Viggen可以配备电子战系统和照明弹分配器,以保护它免受带有红外导引头的导弹的攻击. Chaffs and flares confuse the attackers’ systems, working as decoys to divert the attacking missiles from the aircraft.

 

1. 瑞典和冷战

Saab has a strong position as a supplier of electronic warfare products, for a variety of uses and to a wide range of nations. Hampus Delin identifies four main reasons for this. The first is historical and goes back to the Cold War. 瑞典是一个非盟国,地理位置介于北约和瓦佐条约两个军事集团之间.
“瑞典 created its own solutions as we could not rely on technology from the other nations. 瑞典国防工业被迫建立自己的能力来开发这些产品。”, 利林说.


2. 避开对手的雷达

星际网赌导航在电子战方面的专长的第二个原因是雷达和雷达制导武器一直是飞机的主要威胁, 作为飞机制造商, 电子战是一项关键技术. 空气craft move fast and to detect them, you often need a radar. This also means you want to protect your aircraft from the opponents’ radar. 在这里, 电子战真正开始发挥作用,可以用来避免被发现,以及在受到攻击的情况下保护飞机.


3. 较强的技术专长

星际网赌导航在电子战中的成功背后的第三个解释可以在瑞典长期的尖端技术专业知识中找到. 汉普斯·德林解释说,瑞典在微波技术方面的进步对电子战的发展产生了特别的影响. 在过去几年中,这一趋势有所加速, with a rapid digitalisation and solid-state technology becoming the norm. One of the latest steps here is to build components based on gallium nitride.

Gallium nitride is a semi-conductive material that withstands higher temperatures, provides better bandwidth and offers higher output power than previously available materials. This means that wattage goes up and component sizes go down, which means the for example that the jamming range can be extended.

“一个关键的新引入是我们的有源电子扫描阵列(AESA)天线的氮化镓技术. 这是星际网赌导航与瑞典查尔姆斯理工大学和瑞典国防物资管理局共同开展的一项长期研究项目的成果。”, 利林说.

AESA天线与传统天线的不同之处在于,它们“观察”或发射的方向是由电子控制的. This means that the antenna can be steered electronically to point in different directions, without the need to actually move the antenna.


4. 为鹰狮提供尖端保护

第四个也是最后一个原因是与星际网赌导航先进的多用途战斗机“鹰狮”有关的发展努力, 尤其是它的最新版本, 鹰狮E. 它配备了现代化的设备, advanced electronic warfare system adapted for the most complicated threat environments.

“鹰狮E avoids detection through electronic warfare; with a combination of passive sensors as well as active jamming. This means the pilot can see without being seen”, Hampus 利林说.

所有领域的电子战

50多年的电子战创新意味着星际网赌导航现在提供的电子战解决方案可用于各种空中平台, 陆地和海洋领域.

“Electronic warfare is increasingly important. We see this in all domains”, Hampus Delin concludes. “我们已经采用了最初为飞机开发的知识和技术,现在可以将其应用于船舶或陆基系统. 这一切都是为了保护作业者和资产,同时保持最佳的操作能力。”.